Persian is a language as beautiful as Iran, the country where this language is mostly spoken. A poetic language that gives you the power to understand Persian, beautiful, wise poems and Iranian miscellaneous culture as well. You see world-famous poets such as Ferdowsi, Rumi, Khayyâm, Hâfez, and Sa’di. It’s a branch of the Indo-Iranian language family and is spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. The Official language of Afghanistan is called “Dari” and of Tajikistan is called “Tajiki” which are two types of the same language, Farsi.
Although the Persian language is one of the main pillars of Iranian identity and recognized as the national and official language of Iran, it has an identity far beyond the Iranian plateau. Before British colonialism in India, Indian people also were speaking in Persian.
Nowadays Persian is spoken by 130 million people in the Middle East.
In linguistics, a classical language is a language that is first ancient, second literary rich and third has few slight changes in its last thousand years of existing. In 1872 in the convention of European literates and linguists, the Persian Language was chosen and introduced as a classic language among Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit. Besides, Persian or Farsi is one of the top 3 languages having most proverbs numerically and diversely. This fact is not only a reason for the literary beauty of this language but also making it hard to learn and sometimes understand.
You can hardly find such a complete dictionary like Dehkhoda published in 18 volumes and Mo’in Encyclopedic Dictionary published in 8 volumes. You can find anything you need to know about Farsi, the vocabulary, grammar, proverbs, etc. in these tow rich dictionaries.
Farsi in ancient ages
The language the Achaemenes spoke is known as ancient Farsi that goes back to the sixth century BC.
Farsi in the middle ages
Middle Persian is the language spoken from the third century BC till the seventh. It goes to the Parthian and Sassanian ages in Iran that had simpler grammar but was more complicated than the common language in the Islamic age.
After Arabs conquering Iran, the Persian language continued going to eastern countries like Afghanistan. Islam was published more in Farsi than Arabic in such countries. It was from the ninth century when new Farsi and writing Farsi poems started trending.
With the Academy of Persian Literature being established in 1934, the Persian language entered a new age. It’s mostly attempted to be purified from Arabic and non-Persian words year by year.
The current Persian script is Arabic with some slight changes making it more Farsi with adding some letters like “G: /ɡ/ (Persian: گ)”, “ch: /tʃ/ (Persian: چ)”, “P: /p/ (Persian: پ)”, “zh: /ʒ/ (Persian: ژ)”.
An attractive fact about Persian is that there are 811 Persian loanwords in English. You can read more about such words in our “Persian loanwords in English” article.